1948, October - October However pockets of resistance lasted through to 1957, almost 10 years later. Some also recall planes returning that second day to fire rockets or drop bombs. They continued down the road, were stopped by American troops at a roadblock near No Gun Ri, and were ordered onto the parallel railroad tracks, where U.S. soldiers searched them and their belongings, confiscating knives and other items.  The Bodo League was created by Korean jurists who had collaborated with the Japanese. , In 2005, the South Korean government's Committee for the Review and Restoration of Honor for the No Gun Ri Victims, after a yearlong process of verifying claims through family registers, medical reports and other documents and testimony, certified the names of 150 No Gun Ri dead, 13 missing, and 55 wounded, including some who later died of their wounds. :71 By the second day, the gunfire was reduced to potshots and occasional fusillades when a trapped refugee moved or tried to escape. Choi, Suhi (January 2011). Meeting with South Korean officials in 2001, the survivors asked that their government seek action at the International Court of Justice at The Hague, and in U.N. human rights forums, but were rebuffed. :86, In 2005, American historian Sahr Conway-Lanz reported his discovery of a declassified document at the National Archives in which the United States Ambassador to Korea in 1950, John J. Muccio, notified the State Department on the day the No Gun Ri killings began that the U.S. military, fearing infiltrators, had adopted a policy of shooting South Korean refugee groups that approached U.S. lines despite warning shots. The commission's docket eventually held more than 200 cases of what it described as "civilian massacre committed by U.S.  When Seoul was recaptured in late September 1950, an estimated 30,000 South Koreans were summarily deemed collaborators with the North Koreans and shot by ROK forces. In December, British troops saved civilians lined up to be shot by South Korean officers and seized one execution site outside Seoul to prevent further massacres. :185:97 At the same time, it described the deaths as "an unfortunate tragedy inherent to war and not a deliberate killing". :135 In June 1998, South Korea's National Council of Churches, on behalf of the No Gun Ri survivors, sought help from the U.S. National Council of Churches, which quietly asked the Pentagon to investigate. :278, Expanding on the AP's work, in June 2000, CBS News reported the existence of a U.S. Air Force memo from July 1950, in which the operations chief in Korea said the Air Force was strafing refugee columns approaching U.S. Almost all were ignored, as was a petition to the U.S. and South Korean governments by the local Yongdong County Assembly. The survivors' group called the U.S. report a "whitewash". :168 On January 11, 2001, the two governments issued their separate reports. " American lawyers for the No Gun Ri survivors rejected that rationale, saying that whether 7th Cavalry troops acted under formal orders or not, "the massacre of civilian refugees, mainly the elderly, women and children, was in and of itself a clear violation of international law for which the United States is liable under the doctrine of command responsibility and must pay compensation". The Koreans noted that two of the veterans were battalion communications specialists (Levine and Crume) and, as such, were in an especially good position to know which orders had been relayed. Seoul National University Hospital massacre, http://www.ohmynews.com/NWS_Web/View/at_pg.aspx?CNTN_CD=A0002433425, List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_massacres_in_South_Korea&oldid=962731141, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The challenge of civilians on the battlefield", Pentagon news conference on No Gun Ri Review Report, "Digging into history – AP investigates U.S. actions during the Korean War", "Records and the Understanding of Violent Events: Archival Documentation, Historical Perception, and the No Gun Ri Massacre in the Korean War", The United States, the United Nations, and the Second Occupation of Korea 1950–1951, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=No_Gun_Ri_massacre&oldid=986837505, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, At least 163 dead or missing, according to South Korea.  The executions were performed without any trials or sentencing. :93[nb 5] "Most fighter-bomber pilots regarded Korean civilians in white clothes as enemy troops," South Korean scholar Taewoo Kim would later conclude after reviewing Air Force mission reports from 1950. Of particular relevance was that they lacked training in dealing with war-displaced civilians. In 2005, a South Korean government inquest certified the names of 163 dead o… Survivors were forbidden by the government from revealing it, under suspicion of being communist sympathizers; whilst public revelation carried with it the threat of torture and death. The No Gun Ri massacre (Korean: 노근리 민간인 학살 사건; Hanja: 老斤里良民虐殺事件; RR: Nogeun-ri minganin haksal sageon) occurred on July 26–29, 1950, early in the Korean War, when an undetermined number of South Korean refugees were killed in a U.S. air attack and by small- and heavy-weapons fire of the 7th Cavalry Regiment at a railroad bridge near the village of Nogeun-ri (Korean: 노근리), 100 miles (160 km) southeast of Seoul. [nb 12] In addition, interview transcripts obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests showed that the Army had not reported repeated testimony from ex-soldiers that, as one put it, "the word I heard was 'Kill everybody from 6 to 60'" during their early days in Korea. Ten years earlier, members of the U.S. military killed a large number of South Korean refugees under and around the bridge, early in the Korean War. , The 1999 No Gun Ri articles prompted hundreds of South Koreans to come forward to report other alleged incidents of large-scale civilian killings by the U.S. military in 1950–1951, mostly in the form of air attacks.
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