In the third stage, the child realizes that filial piety is crucial in establishing and keeping parent–child relationships; in the fourth stage, this is expanded to include relationships outside of one's family. In the Chinese tradition of patriarchy, roles are upheld to maintain the harmony of the whole. To paraphrase Irene Bloom on this point, there is no sharp conflict between “nature” and “nurture” in Mencius; biology and culture are co-dependent upon one another in the development of the virtues. Traditional texts essentially describe filial piety in terms of a son–father relationship, but in practice, it involves all parent–child relationships, as well as relationships with stepparents, grandparents and ancestors. Filial piety is central to Confucian role ethics. From late Zhou tradition, Mencius inherited a great many religious sensibilities, including theistic ones. In short, filial piety is central to Confucian role ethics and is the cardinal virtue, that defines, limits or even eliminates all other virtues. As such, filial piety is done to reciprocate the care one’s parents have given. This, too, she found unworthy of her son and so moved again to a small home near a school. , During the Qing dynasty, however, filial piety was redefined by the emperor Kangxi (1654–1722), who felt it more important that his officials were loyal to him than that they were filial sons: civil servants were often not allowed to go on extended leave to perform mourning rituals for their parents. Hong Kong, on the other hand, has attempted to influence its population by providing incentives for fulfilling their obligations. all fathers and sons in the kingdom were established in their respective These stories depict how children exercised their filial piety in the past. ', Mencius said, 'Men's being ready with their tongues arises simply from Confucian teachings about filial piety can be found in numerous texts, including the Four Books, that is the Great Learning (大学), the Doctrine of the Mean (中庸), Analects (论语) and the book Mencius, as well as the works Classic of Filial Piety (孝经) and the Book of Rites (礼记). Filial piety means to be good to one’s parents; to take care of one’s parents; to engage in good conduct not just towards parents but also outside the home so as to bring a good name to one’s parents and ancestors; to perform the duties of one’s job well (preferably the same job as one’s parents to fulfill their aspirations) as well as to carry out sacrifices to the ancestors; not be rebellious, to be polite, and well-mannered; to show love, respect and support, to be near home to serve one’s parents; display courtesy; ensure male heirs, uphold fraternity among brothers; wisely advise one’s parents, including dissuading them from moral unrighteousness; display sorrow for their sickness and death; bury them and carry out sacrifices after their death. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Mencius was shocked at this behavior, but his mother told him it was no more than what he, himself, was doing in not finishing his schoolwork and so rendering it worthless.  But the most important expression of and exercise in filial piety were the burial and mourning rituals to be held in honor of one's parents. Filial piety and fraternal obedience in their relation to benevolence, righteousness, wisdom, propriety, and music. existential love that is love with the foundation of filial piety. Li is defined as behaving according to social norms and cultural values.