Like other desert animals, the camel loses little water in its wastes (urine and feces). The Turks were defeated by the British, who had the backing of irregular Arab forces that were seeking to revolt against the Turks in the Hejaz, made famous in T.E.  The ministry of environment and forest provides financial assistance to the respective state governments for conservation of landscape, biological diversity and the cultural heritage.. Few make it to adulthood. Wildfires fanned by Santa Ana winds burned 721,791 acres (292,098 ha)[where?] It may be that after the sand and dust is blown away by the wind the stones jiggle themselves into place; alternatively, stones previously below ground may in some way work themselves to the surface. In Antarctica, for example, the annual precipitation is about 50 mm (2 in) on the central plateau and some ten times that amount on some major peninsulas. The semi-arid fringes of the desert have fragile soils which are at risk of erosion when exposed, as happened in the American Dust Bowl in the 1930s. In English before the 20th century, desert was often used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity; but today the word is most often used in its climate-science sense (an area of low precipitation). The mechanism is little understood but the particles usually have a negative charge when their diameter is under 250 μm and a positive one when they are over 500 μm.. A study of these microbes found that desert farming hampers desertification by establishing islands of fertility allowing farmers to achieve increased yields despite the adverse environmental conditions. They are usually shallow and saline, and wind blowing over their surface can cause stress, moving the water over nearby low-lying areas. The winds are portrayed by Eric Michael Roy.. They form downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand and occur when topographic and climatic conditions cause airborne particles to settle. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available, and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life. Flies, beetles, ants, termites, locusts, millipedes, scorpions and spiders have hard cuticles which are impervious to water and many of them lay their eggs underground and their young develop away from the temperature extremes at the surface. They took with them their tents made of cloth or skins draped over poles and their diet included milk, blood and sometimes meat.  I rekindle a waning argument with the telephone company, then cut my losses and lie down, given over to whatever is in the air. The sunlight can be obliterated and it may become as dark as night at ground level. Further inland, areas receive very little precipitation. Many desert reptiles are ambush predators and often bury themselves in the sand, waiting for prey to come within range. The airmass, flowing from high pressure in the Great Basin to a low pressure center off the coast, takes the path of least resistance by channeling through the mountain passes to the lower coastal elevations, as the low pressure area off the coast pulls the airmass offshore.. While there they shed their skins a number of times and retain the remnants around them as a waterproof cocoon to retain moisture. In hot deserts, the temperature during daytime can exceed 45 °C (113 °F) in summer and plunge below freezing point at night during winter. Both extremely arid and arid lands are considered to be deserts while semiarid lands are generally referred to as steppes when they are grasslands. These winds, which can easily exceed 40 miles per hour (64 km/h), are warm and dry and can severely exacerbate brush or forest fires, especially under drought conditions. The increased temperature on the cold deserts makes the water level also increase. Some of Earth 's biggest deserts Deserts of this type are often long and narrow and bounded to the east by mountain ranges. Many locations within this category have elevations exceeding 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and the thermal regime can be hemiboreal. In other words, they can have less rainfall in a year than they give up through evaporation".. The repeated fluctuations put a strain on exposed rock and the flanks of mountains crack and shatter. The air has already been dried by orographic lift before reaching the Great Basin, as well as by subsidence from the upper atmosphere, so this additional warming often causes relative humidity to fall below 10 percent. The combination of wind, heat, and dryness accompanying the Santa Ana winds turns the chaparral into explosive fuel feeding the infamous wildfires for which the region is known. They have few adaptations to desert life and are unable to cool themselves by sweating so they shelter during the heat of the day. , Lakes may form in basins where there is sufficient precipitation or meltwater from glaciers above. Meek little wives feel the edge of the carving knife and study their husbands' necks. Rain falling in the cold season may be more effective at promoting plant growth, and defining the boundaries of deserts and the semiarid regions that surround them on the grounds of precipitation alone is problematic.. The National Weather Service defines Santa Ana winds as "Strong down slope winds that blow through the mountain passes in southern California. In many ways, birds are the ablest to do this of the higher animals. There may be underground sources of water, in the form of springs and seepages from aquifers.  The long-legged darkling beetle in Namibia stands on its front legs and raises its carapace to catch the morning mist as condensate, funnelling the water into its mouth. Winds blowing off the elevated glaciated plateaus of Greenland and Antarctica experience the most extreme form of katabatic wind, of which the Santa Ana is a type, for the most part. The North Slope of Alaska's Brooks Range also receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of precipitation per year and is often classified as a cold desert. Different theories exist as to how exactly the pavement is formed. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts, especially across the Sahara Desert, and traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold, ivory and other goods. Successive strata are exposed to further weathering.  It has been found that plant growth-promoting bacteria play a role in increasing the resistance of plants to stress conditions and these rhizobacterial suspensions could be inoculated into the soil in the vicinity of the plants. The structure of the sheet consists of thin horizontal layers of coarse silt and very fine to medium grain sand, separated by layers of coarse sand and pea-gravel which are a single grain thick.